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Za genetski test trebamo uzorak krvi ili bris usne šupljine.
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Većina genetskih testova završena je u roku od tri do pet radnih dana.
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O rezultatima obavijestimo vas putem e-maila i izvještaj šaljemo poštom.
Storage and re-use of DNA samples of your dog
25.02.2021
In previous articles, we have described the entire path of the sample from sampling to results and their interpretation. If biological sample (swab, blood) was of high quality a lot of isolated DNA remains after the analysis, and it can be stored for reuse.   The DNA molecule is stable for a very long time under favourable conditions. Rapid advances in DNA technologies make it possible to obtain information from archaeological and paleontological remains. Thus, we can study the genetic links between extinct organisms and their modern relatives. Scientists can use the DNA molecule of organisms that lived before the advent of the Neanderthal. There are also studies on dog samples from more than 10,000 years ago.     The stability of DNA isolated in the laboratory is influenced by various factors from storage temperature, purity/the quality of the sample from which the DNA was isolated, the protocol used for isolation, the DNA sequence, and the exposure to light or UV radiation.   DNA is stored in a refrigerator at +4 °C for a short period of time, but in the case of good quality it is stable for several years in such conditions. Despite the good stability of DNA at +4 °C, it is better to store it at −20 °C or −80 °C for long-term storage. Sensitive DNA samples can be stored in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C. Such storage is used only for extremely sensitive samples (e.g. archaeological samples).   In our laboratory, DNA samples are stored at −20 °C for several years. And why do we keep DNA samples at all? DNA samples are stored so that they can be reused at the customer's request in the event of new discoveries and new genetic tests.   New technologies in the field of DNA enable very rapid detection of new mutations associated with various genetic diseases and physical traits (hair colour, tail length, etc.). At the time of writing, about 300 mutations are already known in dogs, but the number of these is rapidly increasing. Newly discovered mutation is followed by the development of a genetic test and the offering of this test on the market.   If you have sent a sample to our laboratory in the past, it is stored in most cases. In case you want to order an additional genetic test for the same animal, it is not necessary to send a new sample, as many different genetic tests can be performed from the existing sample. This will avoid the stress of taking the sample again, sending it, and doubting whether you took the sample correctly.
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The journey of my dog’s sample in the genetic lab. Step 3
02.02.2021
Interpretation and use of genetic test results   Understanding and correct interpretation of a genetic test result is one of the most important steps in using a genetic test for dog breeding. As we have written in previous blog posts, several steps are important in performing a genetic test: sampling, DNA isolation, test performance, and interpretation of results. With correct interpretation of the genetic test results, we can contribute a lot to the positive development of an individual breed, and we can even improve it.     Genetic tests are a very powerful tool used in dog selection. Their improper use or misunderstanding can also lead to negative impacts on an individual breed. By recklessly eliminating animals from breeding, we can reduce the genetic diversity of an individual breed, which can lead to various health problems. To avoid problems, it is necessary to understand some of the properties of genetic tests.   Genetic tests are used to analyse specific DNA changes called mutations. It is very important to know what the tested mutation is causing. Mutations can cause loss of basic body functions and consequently genetic diseases, increase the risk of genetic disease, affect the body's response to the application of specific drugs (pharmacogenetics), affect the dog's physical characteristics, colour and quality of the coat. Genetic tests are in most cases specific to individual dog breeds. When choosing a genetic test, it is therefore necessary to pay attention to the breed of animal and the trait we want to test.   To interpret genetic test results, it is very important to know the mode of inheritance of the tested mutation. You can find this information on our website in the description of individual genetic test and on the genetic test report. You can read more details about the modes of inheritance HERE.   Until recently, genetic tests were only available for monogenic diseases where only one gene is involved in the development of the disease. With the improvement of technology and a better understanding of the canine genome, tests for polygenic diseases have been developed. Polygenic diseases are associated with several different genes. Interpretation of the results is particularly demanding, as more association studies are necessary to determine the connection between different mutations and the phenotype. With a poor knowledge about the basic laws of genetics the use of polygenic genetic tests can be quite demanding.   When choosing a genetic test as well as when interpreting the results, it is good to know in which breeds the tested mutation occurs, what is its frequency in the population and what is its penetration. The frequency of a mutation is sometimes difficult to determine, as it can vary by breed as well as between dog populations. Penetration tells us the proportion of animals with the mutation that develop the disease. Many monogenic genetic diseases have 100% penetration, which means that each animal with this mutation will develop a specific genetic disease. However, there are also mutations that do not have 100% penetration. In such cases, only some animals develop a specific genetic disease. All the above characteristics of genetic tests must be considered in breeding decisions. With a basic knowledge of genetic laws, correct use of genetic tests and correct interpretation of results, breeders can improve the quality of life for many pets, and often make it easier for new owners to choose a healthy dog that best suits them.
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