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Stručna objašnjenja i pojedinosti koje se tiču alergijskih i endokrinih testova.

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Vlasnici životinja


  • Izvođenje genetskog testiranja prema najvišim laboratorijskim standardima.
  • Brzu i stručnu podršku u odabiru testova i interpretaciji rezultata.
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Jednostavna narudžba genetskih testova

Određivanje nasljedne predispozicije za razvoj određenih bolesti, karakteristika i odgovora na terapiju.

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Za genetski test trebamo uzorak krvi ili bris usne šupljine.
Većina genetskih testova završena je u roku od tri do pet radnih dana.
O rezultatima obavijestimo vas putem e-maila i izvještaj šaljemo poštom.
Dog Coat Color
Throughout history dog coat colors developed through natural and human selection. Protective colors that allowed better survival in nature were favoured by natural selection. When dog was domesticated intense human selection had a major role in the development of new coat colors.   With the emergence of different breeds coat color standards were determined for a particular breed. Selective breeding is responsible for eradication of unwanted coat colors from individual breeds. Due to intensive selection in certain breeds all dogs have the same color pattern. Most breeds have a limited set of color patterns. One reason is that due to selection some of the genes involved have become fixed. Another reason, however, is that many color patterns are recessive, and two copies of recessive alleles are required for this color to be expressed. Breeds differ from each other in genes with fixed alleles and those that are not fixed, so breeders who want to test color loci do not need to test all of them.     In most dog breeds breeders prefer certain coat colors and some are even forbidden by breeding standards. Selective breeding has a crucial influence in the desired coat color expression. Knowledge about the mechanism and genetic code involved in coat color determination is of key importance to the breeder who wants to breed puppies of certain colors.   Specific skin cells called melanocytes are producing pigment melanin responsible for the color of the skin, hair, and eyes. There are two types of pigment which determine coat color in dogs: black eumelanin and yellow-red pheomelanin. Of all the loci involved in the formation of color the most important are loci E, A, and K, as they determine whether melanocytes will produce yellow-red pheomelanin or black eumelanin. Locus E determines whether the dog will have a melanistic mask and whether the rest of the coat will have only yellow-red pheomelanin or only black eumelanin. Locus A is responsible for various coat patterns, as it regulates the release of pigment into the hair and is also involved in switching between the production of both pigments resulting in e.g. striped hair (the color of agouti we see in wolves). Locus K determines whether the dog will express the colors determined by locus A and is also responsible for the brindle pattern.   In addition to these, there are quite a few other loci that affect the amount of pigment formed. This affects color shades and color distribution throughout the body. For instance, locus B is responsible for changing black eumelanin to brown but does not affect pheomelanin. Locus D may be responsible for coat color dilution while affecting pigment intensity. Loci for coat color in dogs determine which pigment cells will produce eumelanin or pheomelanin and to what extent. Sometimes genes do not allow production of pigments which results in white coloration, e.g. locus S.   Several loci are known to be responsible for coat color patterns in dogs. Different combinations of gene alleles at these loci determine the exact color of the coat. DNA tests identify specific variants of alleles that determine coat color. The purpose is to identify whether the dog has hidden/recessive colors that are not expressed (not visible on the coat). For breeders, therefore, knowledge of the genetic background responsible for coat color is very important, because based on this they can decide to select the appropriate mating pair and thus breed offspring with the expected or desired color.
What are genetic diseases?
Genetic diseases are caused by one or more changes (mutations) on the DNA. They can be monogenic, where one or more mutations are present in a single gene; polygenic, involving mutations of several genes; or the entire chromosome may be defective. Mutations can be hereditary (passed from parents to offspring) or occur spontaneously during embryonic development (de novo mutations).   There are almost 800 hereditary diseases and specific hereditary traits known in dogs until now. Almost half of hereditary diseases and specific hereditary traits are inherited by simple/Mendelian mode of inheritance. Majority of hereditary diseases in dogs are monogenic with an already known mutation. Because of the mostly simple mutations such genetic defects are best studied and consequently well described. Often the discovery of a causal mutation is followed by the development of a genetic test. In polygenic diseases, however, the number of genes involved is so large it is difficult to describe the exact genetic cause of the disease. Due to the complexity of the genetic basis of these diseases they are still not studied enough, and genetic tests are often not available for them.     Genetic diseases can affect all parts of the body. The most studied genetic diseases are diseases of the eyes, skin, muscles, heart, kidneys, neurological disorders, blood diseases, immune diseases, hormonal diseases, metabolic diseases and skeletal diseases. Of all the groups of genetic diseases listed above, genetic eye diseases are the most studied in dogs, as mutations that cause visual impairment in dogs are relatively common. Vision is one of the basic body functions that enables a dog to have a normal quality of life, so the need to research the genetic basis of eye diseases has greatly increased. To date, dozens of mutations are known to be responsible for the development of eye diseases. However, due to the genetic diversity of breeds, some of the described mutations are present only in some dog breeds. This is why one mutation may be responsible for the development of the same specific eye disease in one breed and another mutation in other breeds. To date, several mutations that cause the same eye disease in different breeds of dogs have been described. Therefore, when choosing a genetic test, we must be especially careful to use a genetic test for the mutation that occurs in the selected breed.   In addition to studying genetic diseases responsible for body function defects, a new branch of genetics called pharmacogenetics has been developed. Pharmacogenetics investigates the genetic basis for different responses to drugs between individuals. In dogs, the genetic test for the MDR1 gene mutation (Ivermectin sensitivity) is particularly well-known. Severe neurotoxicosis in animals with MDR1 gene mutation are expressed after application of certain drugs.   Genetic diseases in dogs are untreatable, as gene therapy in dogs is not yet used for general health purposes. Gene therapy is a treatment procedure where an undamaged gene (therapeutic gene) is introduced into the body to replace a defective or missing gene. With the help of gene therapy, we achieve that the mutation or gene damage can no longer cause genetic disease. Due to the incurability of genetic diseases, it is very important to use genetic tests. Based on the genetic test results, in some diseases we can more effectively facilitate the symptoms of the disease or avoid more severe forms of such a disease. Genetic test results are, beside others, an important factor influencing the mating partner selection, as with proper breeding many genetic diseases can be avoided.