Protein Losing Nephropathy (PLN) is a hereditary kidney disorder that causes protein leakage into urine. PLN is a late onset disease with mean age = 6.3 ± 2.0 years. Because of the late onset of the disease, dogs are usually bred before diagnosis, and therefore they transmit mutated gene to their offspring.
PLN is genetically complex disease and several different genes and environmental factors can contribute to the onset of symptoms. Clinical signs include weight loss and fatigue. The condition is progressive, resulting in symptoms of kidney disease such as increased drinking (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria), decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Complications include hypertension, thromboembolic events and renal failure. In early stages of the disease PLN can be misdiagnosed as liver, gland or other kidney diseases.
Genetic test for PLN detects two different mutations on two different genes. Dogs homozygous for both mutations are at significantly increased risk to develop PLN. Dogs heterozygous for both mutations appear at intermediate risk. It is possible that other environmental and genetic triggers are necessary for development of the disease. Dogs lacking the predisposing alleles may develop PLN due to infectious, inflammatory, immunemediated, neoplastic, or other causes.
Inheritance: autosomal - read more
Mutation: KIRREL2 and NPHS1 genes
Genetic test: The method used for testing is extremely accurate and allows complete differentiation between affected animals, carriers and healthy dogs. Testing can be done at any age.
Disease control: read more
Sample: EDTA whole blood (1.0 ml) or buccal swabs. Detailed information about sampling can be found here.